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Air Pollution Studies:
Yun-Chul Hong, et al. "Effects of Air Pollutants on Acute Stroke Mortality." We conclude that PM10 and gaseous pollutants are significant risk factors for acute stroke death and that the elderly and women are more susceptible to the effect of particulate pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 110, Number 2, February 2002.
A. Nemmar, DVM, PhD., et al. "Passage of Inhaled Particles Into the Blood Circulation in Humans." The finding "should be considered relevant for the cardiovascular (illness and death) related to ambient particle pollution. Circulation 2002;105:411-414.
SC study shows air pollution may trigger asthma in young athletes. Feb. 2002.
monitoring study in the area of Los Angeles International Airport. April
April, 2000. Key toxics found are benzene, butadiene, and elemental carbon. Longer term sampling is needed for a more complete risk assessment.
Evaluation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Subsonic Commercial Jet Aircraft (EPA-420/R-99-013, April 1999).
EPA Toxic Emissions from Aircraft Engines study. (EPA-453/R-93-028, July 1993.)
Federal Aviation Administration. Air Quality Procedures for Civilian Airports and Air Force Bases. 1997
Washington State Dept. of Ecology. Sea-Tac Air Pollution Contribution. May, 1991.
Adams, A., B. Hulet, D. Ramras, H.Seidman. Sea-Tac Air Quality. June, 1973.
Donaldson, Wallace R., U.S. Department of Commerce. Air Pollution by Jet Aircraft at Seattle-Tacoma Airport. ESSA Technical Memorandum. WBTM WR 58. Oct. 1970. Study suggests a strategy to remove smoke plume. Toxic plume contamination is 12 miles long for approaches, six miles long for take-offs.
Climate Change Studies:
GAO Study Links Aircraft Emissions to Global Warming as a significant factor.
NASA believes jet contrails contribute significantly to climatic changes. (Adobe PDF format)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere." 1999 (Adobe PDF format).
The Plane Truth. This report looks at the remarkable forecasts for the rates of growth within this industry and critiques the data used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It looks at the impact that aviation is currently having on the environment and estimates what that impact might be if these widely predicted rates of growth are achieved. The report concludes that the way aviation affects the environment requires serious discussion. greenhouse gases causing climate change, local air pollution and noise pollution, and looks at how that contribution is likely to increase.
EPA Enforcement Alert:
"Airlines Must Comply With Federal Fuel Standards, Stormwater and Spill Prevention Requirements, and Report Emergency Releases."
EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project. Air Transportation Industry. October 1998. Multimedia summary, industrial process, pollution outputs, TRI data, pollution prevention, federal regulations, compliance history, compliance assistance, voluntary programs, air transportation, airport operations, aircraft washing, aircraft deicing, tarmac deicing, runway deicing, chemical stripping wastes, used oil, batteries, aircraft cleaning, hazardous waste, environmental law, compliance, enforcement, storm water, pretreatment, emergency plans, spill prevention, air emissions, VOC's.
Canada and the United States, Draft Report on Alkyl-Lead: Sources, Regulations and Options. Revised: November 02, 1999. Aviation gasoline (avgas) is currently the fuel with the greatest alkyl-lead (TEL) content, ranging from 4.4x10-3 to 8.8x10-3 lbs as lead/gal (USEPA, 1998a). Only TEL is used in aviation gasoline. The other aviation fuels, such as Jet kerosene and JP-4, do not contain alkylated lead compounds.
Park Ridge, Illinois O'Hare Toxic
Air and Cancer Risk Pollution Study. O'Hare Airport Toxic Air Study
discovered over 200 air toxic
emissions emitted from airport property. The study shows unacceptable
cancer risks from airport operations and flights at O'Hare which affects 98
communities in about a 32 mile radius of the airport, including Chicago
Chapter 4 (In Adobe PDF Format)
Fox J. Philis. Summary comments from airport workers on the Oakland Airport expansion. 1997. These analyses indicate that off-site impacts of the Project are already significant and would increase the incidence of cancer and respiratory disease in residential neighborhoods around the airport and among employees at the airport itself.
Piazza, Bill. Los Angeles School District. Santa Monica Airport Emissions Report. Among many other significant findings, the study shows that with generally only 15 jet flights a day, 5,000 annual, that it causes a significant increase in cancer risks.
study of Boston's Logan. Among other findings it shows: For the most
common respiratory diseases, asthma and allergy, disease is twice as common
in the most heavily exposed neighborhood as it is in the least exposed.
Airport Cancer Maps: US-EPA / Minneapolis Minnesota Cancer Risk Map. US-EPA / Minneapolis Minnesota Noncarcenogenic Inhalation Risk Map. Airport Site map for Minneapolis. Sydney Airports Cancer Map. (Maps are in Adobe PDF format).
Health data from a residential US-EPA grant study prepared by Seattle-King County Department of Public Health for communities surrounding Boeing Field (King-County International Airport). The data shows significant health spikes in hospitalization and death rates. Summary Data. Full Data.
Public health impact of large airports (study for purchase). Public health impact of large airports. Passchier W, Knottnerus A, Albering H, Walda Netherlands.firstname.lastname@example.org Health Council of The Netherlands, The Hague. Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, traveling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.
Community Health Concerns Around SeaTac Airport. Washington State
Department of Health, Washington State Department of Ecology, Puget Sound
Clean Air Agency. March 2000. The airport and airport-related
activities are potentially major sources of air pollution and environmental
justice requires that one group of people not benefit at the cost of
environmental degradation affecting the quality of life of another group.
Williams, Beth., M.S.A. Air Pollution: A Study with Particular Reference to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport ; RCAA White Papers, Book 1. (Reviews air and toxic pollutants commonly found in airport communities and their effects on health and the environment. Summarizes 1991 Washington State Department of Ecology Study and the lack of a monitoring program at Sea-Tac.)
Airports are known to be major sources of noise, water, and air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 12, December 1997. The issue of the effect of airports on the environment and human health has heated up in recent years as public interest and citizen groups contest airport expansion on environmental and health grounds, and the airline and airport industries attempt to meet increasingly stringent regulations in these areas.
Environmental Policies at Europe's Airports': A European study that finds aviation mitigation measures are seen as ineffective and increasingly outpaced by growth. While pointing out problems, study suggests some solutions. View their home page at http://www.milieudefensie.nl/airtravel/.
from the Environmental Organization, Copenhagen
This report concludes that the airport/aviation industry is the single most polluting industry, yet is virtually free from meaningful regulation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine. "Increased prevalence of hypertension in a population exposed to aircraft noise," 2001. Report shows that people exposed to average aircraft noise levels of 55 decibels or higher were 60% more likely to report having been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Those with exposures exceeding 72 decibels were 80% more likely to report a high blood pressure diagnosis.
Aviation and the Environment: FAA's Role in Major Airport Noise Programs. RCED-00-98 April 28, 2000.
noise is harmful to the health and well-being of children and may cause
by Cornell University and others, March 1998. Study shows concern for the 10 million American schoolchildren living in airport affected areas. The study was supported, in part, by the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, the National Institutes of Health, the Nordic Scientific Group for Noise Effects, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the German Research Foundation.
Papers from Inter-Noise 98, the 1998 International Congress on Noise Control Engineering.
near airports don't read as well because they tune out speech. by
Cornell University, April, 1997.
Prof. W. Holland, Heathrow Association for the Control of Aircraft Noise. Noise and Health. June 1997.
Review article includes definition of sound and noise, physiological and psychological effects of noise, responsibility of government, planning and designing for quiet, and discussion of efforts of organizations combating noises.
Discusses the sources of noises and mental and physical health impacts but the major focus is on the law and noise on the federal and New York State level.
Abstract: A questionnaire distributed to two groups, one living within the flight pattern of a major airport and the other in a non-flight area, sought to determine whether these groups would respond differently to questionnaires pertaining to noise, health perception, and quality of life issues. Nearly 70% of the residents living within the flight corridors reported themselves bothered by aircraft noise. Aircraft noise, in contrast to other bothersome noises, interfered more frequently with daily activities. Subjects who were bothered aircraft noise were more likely to complain of sleep difficulties and more likely to perceive themselves to be in poorer health. This study's finding of a possible relationship between noise and adverse health effects might encourage policy makers to enact pending anti-noise legislation and to fund further noise research.
Please share this study with public officials, neighbors, and all interested in effects of noise on health. With 70% of the subjects reporting being bothered by noise, it can't be said that only a few are bothered. Daily activities interfered with: watching television, sleeping, opening windows, sleep. These are all important to a good "quality of life."
For more information: Contact Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., 505 E. 79th Street, New York, NY 10021. -- email: email@example.com
Area Air Quality Management District findings and recommendations regarding
Airport and Aircraft Air Quality. Dec, 17, 2001.
Flying Off Course: Environmental Impacts of America's Airports. Natural Resources Defense Council. Oct. 1996. The findings were, while airports vary in terms of size and geographical characteristics, significant environmental impacts were common to most of the airports in our survey. The study also found that the regulatory framework currently in place to address these impacts is inadequate. Because aviation is the fastest growing mode of transportation in the United States, increasing nearly twice as fast as motor-vehicle travel, these failings must be addressed. This report focuses on the issues they thought to be most significant: noise and land use, ground-level air emissions, water pollution, and, on a more global scale, climate change and energy efficiency.
Professor Kenneth Button, The Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. Oct. 29, 1998. Aviation & the Environment: A General Perspective (Adobe PDF format).
Button, Kenneth. The Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. The Usefulness of Current International Air Transport Statistics.
Global aviation impacts from Friends of the Earth International. 1997.
Socio-Economic Impact Studies:
Orange County California "Loss of Property Value and Property Tax Revenue Attributable to El Toro Airport Noise"
(This section discusses projected socio-economic impacts of Sea-Tac expansion including changes in land uses, impacts on home ownership, local government revenues, impacts on residential property values and property tax revenues, effects on community facilities and services, educational impacts on children as well as impacts on School District revenues. This section recommends steps to mitigate community impacts associated with Sea-Tac expansion.)
http://www.rcaanews.org/hoksum.htm#hoksumtop * Helmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc. -- ;Dallas, Texas; Raytheon Infrastructure Services, Inc. -- ;Denver & Philadelphia, in association with Thomas/Lane & Associates, Inc. -- ;SeaTac International Airport Impact Mitigation Study: Initial Assessment and Recommendations, February, 1997. Executive Summary. Prepared under a grant from the State of Washington. Reviews the costs of mitigating noise, transportation, property loss, tax loss, and school impacts of the proposed third runway at SeaTac.
http://www.rcaanews.org/hoksec9.htm#hoksec9top * Helmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc. -- ;Dallas, Texas; Raytheon Infrastructure Services, Inc. -- ;Denver & Philadelphia, in association with Thomas/Lane & Associates, Inc. -- ;SeaTac International Airport Impact Mitigation Study: Initial Assessment and Recommendations, February, 1997. Section 9 Potential SocioEconomic Impacts and Mitigation.
http://www.rcaanews.org/HOKappa.htm * Helmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc. Dallas, Texas; Raytheon Infrastructure Services, Inc. -- ;Denver & Philadelphia, in association with Thomas/Lane & Associates, Inc. -- ;SeaTac International Airport Impact Mitigation Study: Initial Assessment and Recommendations, February, 1997. Appendix A: Equity Issues and Socio-Economic Impacts. This section of the HOK Report examines the economic benefits and costs to the locally impacted communities. It generally concludes that the communities shoulder heavy costs for the impacts but receive relatively small amount of the benefits from the airport.
McDowell, Scott A., Sawmill
Creek - "Watershed Restoration" Project,
1997. Water quality study near Baltimore-Washington Airport shows that
Sawmill Creek has been adversely affected by deicing fluids which, is a
serious human threat. Study also identifies additives to the deicing
Hartwell, S. Ian, et. al, State of Maryland. Toxicity of Aircraft De-icer and Anti-icer Solutions on Aquatic Organisms. May, 1993. The propylene glycol anti-icer solution was found to be more toxic than the ethylene glycol de-icer solutions by two orders of magnitude. Both types of solutions exhibited greater toxicity than literature values for the primary ingredients.
data and bibliography for some of toxic additives found in
deicing fluids at Baltimore-Washington Airport.
Gruden, C.L., et. al. Toxicity of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Additive in Anaerobic Environments. Aircraft deicing practices generate millions of gallons of contaminated runoff and concentrated wastes annually. The chemical additives to the deicing fluids appear to have negative impacts on biological treatment systems, fish and zooplankton at low concentrations.
Aviation: the social, economic and environmental impact of flying.